Compared with the international advanced level, the technology and application of Chinese performing arts lighting are uneven. The development of computer lights and LED lamps is basically at the forefront of the world. The development of new products is basically synchronized with foreign countries. The level is not much different from foreign advanced levels, but the light source and lighting console are relatively backward, especially the level of the light source is too large. At present, the biggest problem of the entire industry lies in the lack of innovation, insufficient protection of intellectual property rights, learning from foreign countries and imitations, and less independent development based on the artistic needs of performing arts activities.
1 light source
Some foreign light source manufacturers still develop new varieties to a certain extent, such as improving luminous efficiency and life, researching fast disassembly and assembly, and developing personalized light sources in conjunction with the development of new lamps. Due to the relationship between materials and processes, the service life of domestic light sources is relatively short. As the total application of incandescent light sources continues to decline, there is basically no new investment and development in this country. Some widely used varieties, such as HPL bulbs for imaging lamps, are still produced in a certain amount.
1.2 Metal halide light source
The production process of metal halide light sources is relatively complicated, and the quality and process control of raw materials are high. For example, the amount of rare earth elements added to the light source and its proportion determine the color of the light source, and the amount of each element added is not accurately controlled. Causes poor color temperature consistency. China's light source manufacturers' technical solutions in terms of affecting the quality and life of metal halide light sources are not ideal, especially the light source life has a large gap with imported products. At present, the main sources of metal halide light sources used in domestic performing arts venues are imported products. The two major light source production giants of Philips and OSRAM occupy the vast majority of the market.
1.3LED light source
Due to the large gap between China's LED chip production and the international advanced level, currently LED chips in performing arts lamps are basically imported. Except for all-in-one composite lamp beads, most of the COB package and SMT patch modules are completed in China. The optical requirements of performing arts lamps are more complex than general civilian lamps, especially for multi-color light source integrated lamps. Each lamp manufacturer has its own special requirements, such as the number of colors, the proportion of various colors, and various The placement of color LED chips, etc., will be packaged according to their respective requirements. The development and production of domestic hundreds of watts of high-power white LED light engines are currently leading. Shenzhen Guangfeng's products are not only used by domestic lamp manufacturers, but also used by some well-known foreign manufacturers for R & D of lamps. Due to the research and development of light sources, especially LED chips, it is directly related to the research level of the basic theory of the country as a whole, the level of materials science, and the level of production technology. The light source for performing arts is only a small part of the light source. The overall level of light source production in China is low, and it takes a long time to improve the level of light sources for performing arts.
2.1 Computer Light
Although computer lights with metal halide light sources in China have great advantages, there are still many problems. Due to the large scale of production, imbalances between large and small manufacturers are inevitable, and the quality is uneven. Some enterprises will lower prices in order to compete in the market and lower prices. Some key parts or key processes of high-quality computer lights still need to rely on foreign countries, such as the design and processing of reflectors, the coating of some lenses, and so on. The production of computer luminaires started from imitation or even complete reproduction at the earliest. At present, it has reached overall synchronization, and has some innovation or even leading in local design or local function. LED light sources are used to replace metal halide light sources. At present, they are still mainly white LED light sources, which are basically synchronized with foreign countries. Some foreign manufacturers also use Chinese-made LED light engines in this regard. However, there are also some products in foreign countries that have adopted color LED light sources. Some domestic manufacturers have done exploration in this area and failed to become products for sale. As for multi-LED lamp beads and multi-lens computer lights, although some manufacturers are doing ODM or OEM for foreign countries, some of our own products still have poor stray light control, multi-color mixing effect is not ideal, and color control, etc. problem.
2.2LED conventional lamps
The application of LED light sources in the field of performing arts lamps basically has two modes. One is to directly replace the original incandescent light source to form a single light lens with a similar light path structure. The other is to develop multiple light sources according to the characteristics of LED light sources. Multi-lens light fixture. In the early stage, white LED light sources were mainly used. In recent years, with the development of LED light sources, color LED light sources have also been gradually applied. In the transformation of this light source, China's lamp manufacturing industry is relatively leading in terms of time and scale, but there are still gaps in lamp technology and spot quality. In particular, the application of color LED light sources has a gap. Because colored LED lamps are usually equipped with 4 to 7 color LED light sources, it is a very complicated thing to mix the colors or color temperatures required by the performance with different colors according to different proportions. The required color will become a big problem, which requires in-depth research on the color management and control of the lamps and lanterns, and the programming of convenient software. There has been some research in this area in China, but it started late and needs to be further studied.
2.3 Follow light
Follow light is usually a lamp that needs to be operated by a person, so the operating performance of the lamp is very important. important. In terms of optical quality, such as light and solid adjustment, linearity and uniformity of dimming, etc., are the main indicators for evaluating follow-lights. In these respects, domestic spotlights are relatively weak, especially the high-power spotlights are significantly different from internationally advanced similar products.
3 Control Panel
In domestic R & D and production of lighting consoles, compared with other products of lighting systems, there is a large gap with foreign countries. In the early days when only the dimmer was controlled, the lighting console was also called a dimmer. This kind of equipment is relatively simple. Some domestic manufacturers have developed it by themselves and have a large market share. However, after entering the comprehensive control of computer lights and digital video lights, the domestic development obviously cannot keep up. The development of the lighting console is difficult, and the market demand is not large. It is a product with large investment, small income and slow results, so domestic manufacturers are not willing to invest too much.
In the early days, the production of lighting consoles was just a complete copy, cracking foreign products and producing exactly the same copycat version. The low quality and low price of such pirated products have caused a great impact on the domestic sales of imported genuine products. Later, some manufacturers began to invest human and financial resources for development, but as far as functions are concerned, they basically belong to the imitation stage, and their functions are similar to imported products. At present, the above two situations coexist, and some products can be compatible with imported console software. When the product is shipped from the factory, only simple control software is installed, or no software is installed. Users must install the corresponding imported console software by themselves. It is still inevitable Suspect.
At present, domestic regular theaters and large-scale performances, such as the opening and closing ceremonies of sports games, basically use imported lighting consoles. Most of the domestic consoles are used in the performances of some small and medium-sized performance companies or small theater groups. In recent years, the level of domestic consoles has also improved to a certain extent. For the first time in the 2016 CCTV Spring Festival Gala performance, domestically produced lighting consoles were used.
4 Dimming equipment
The level of domestic dimming equipment is not much different from the advanced level abroad. Domestically produced dimmers can meet the needs of various theaters. At present, some dimming and pass-through cabinets in some foreign countries can automatically identify the load characteristics and automatically adjust the corresponding power supply mode. Domestic manufacturers have successfully developed these products and are expected to launch products in 2017. But with the elimination of tungsten halogen light sources, dimmers will eventually die.
Selected from "Blue Book of Chinese Performing Arts Technology" (2015-2016) edited by China Performing Arts Technology Association.